In the last post, we attempted to predict the number of passing yards Aaron Rodgers will accumulate in the 2016 season. We reached some interesting conclusions based on the results of the Monte Carlo simulations that we ran. What does any of this have to do with Software Development teams and projects? More than you would think. Coaches, agents, teams and the players themselves are interested in two things above all  Productivity and Predictability. Sounds familiar? Assuming we are maintaining quality, software team manager and directors are usually trying to increase both the productivity and predictability of their teams.
The Monte Carlo simulations for 16 games (1 season) for Aaron Rodgers can give us clues to both his productivity and predictability. Let us take a look at what Rodgers' numbers would look like if we were to predict 16 games today.
15% Certainty  4667 yds 
30% Certainty  4541 yds 
50% Certainty  4396 yds 
70% Certainty  4236 yds 
80% Certainty  4155 yds 
85% Certainty  4101 yds 
The magnitude of these numbers, i.e. the general range of them, gives us an idea of the productivity of the quarterback. Let us take the middle number, the 50% Certainty number(the median) as an indication of this. We can compare the median prediction for Rodgers (4396 yards) to that of other QBs to get an idea of the level of production we can expect from them in a season. The spread of these numbers, i.e. the difference between the 15% certainty and 85% certainty (566 yards for Aaron Rodgers) gives us an idea of the predictability or consistency of the quarterback. The lower the spread the more consistent the QB. QBs with higher spreads are less predictable as the answer for how many yards they would throw for changes greatly at different levels of certainty.
Now if you replace QBs with software teams and yards with stories, the same interpretations would hold true. The general magnitude of these numbers, represented by the median would be an indication of the productivity of the team. The spread of these numbers, represented by the difference between 15% certainty and 85% certainty number would be a representation for the predictability of the team. Just as in the case of Quarterbacks, the software teams would want the median to be high, to represent higher productivity. Teams would also want the spread to be low, in order to represent greater predictability. Running Monte Carlo simulations on Story throughput as described here, can get us these numbers for teams.
Let us take a look at what these numbers look like for 10 of the modern era quarterbacks. We have 9 currently active quarterbacks and Peyton Manning included in this dataset. We have run Monte Carlo simulations on the data from previous games(going as far back as 2011), for these quarterbacks. The graphs below show the median and spread for the results.
Once we have these numbers, we might be able to come up with a simple metric that helps us identify the kind of Quarterback we need or the team that would be best suited for a project. Very frequently one of these numbers comes at the cost of the other. Usually, the higher the median gets, the more spread is the distribution. The ideal team will have a very high median and a very small distribution. That gives us some hints towards how we should construct this metric. The median should probably be the numerator so that the metric increases as the median increases and the spread should be the denominator so that it has the opposite effect. This gives us a very simple metric  Median/Spread. that might not be enough, some teams might value higher predictability and others might value higher productivity. We can use exponents to get a greater emphasis on one part of the metric over the other. Furthermore, we can scale the metric to have the highest Quarterback being compared in the set to always be a 100 and others fall in behind the Quarterback.
Let us start with the simplest case where the two properties  productivity and predictability are weighted equally. Let us see what our formula for Quarterback rating tells us about our chosen quarterbacks.
Drew Brees

100.00

Peyton Manning

91.86

Aaron Rodgers

81.73

Russell Wilson

77.75

Tom Brady

77.58

Jay Cutler

75.46

Andrew Luck

72.42

Ben Roethlisberger

70.68

Ryan Tannehill

67.33

Eli Manning

66.40

What the table above tells us is that if we value productivity and predictability in equal amounts, Drew Brees would be our top pick. Most of the table looks like it is giving us expected results. There is one exception, Tom Brady seems to be lagging behind Rodgers and Wilson. That runs counter to our understanding of the football world. Upon closer inspection, we see that while Brady is more productive than both Wilson and Rodgers, both of the higher rated (Wilson is barely ahead) are more consistent and predictable.
Now, what if we gave productivity more weight, and pay a little less attention to consistency. Let us give productivity 25% more weight and see what it does to our ratings.
Drew Brees

100.00

Peyton Manning

90.30

Aaron Rodgers

78.31

Tom Brady

75.48

Russell Wilson

70.56

Jay Cutler

69.98

Andrew Luck

69.28

Ben Roethlisberger

68.50

Eli Manning

62.81

Ryan Tannehill

62.49

Drew Brees and Peyton Manning separate themselves from the pack once again. There seems to be a little more order to the world with Brady jumping ahead of Wilson. The "alsorans" do not change their order as much except for the very bottom of the table.
Running multiple combinations of these numbers, the top two remain almost constant. Regardless of how much weight we put on the two components(productivity and predictability), Drew Brees seems to beat out the competition in every case. Peyton Manning seems to always come in right behind Brees. Russell Wilson, with the lowest "spread" in his predictions, moves further up the chart the more we rely on consistency. Tom Brady moves further up the more importance we give to productivity. Neither of them catches up to Peyton unless we say that predictability is more than twice as important as productivity.
We need to answer the same questions in a software development context. What matters more to us Productivity or Predictability? Usually, the answer is both. Unless we are careful though, one if them can hurt the other. We have to use them as balancing metrics. I do not have enough data to say if that balancing metric can be used to compare teams. We can definitely use the balancing metric to see if the same team(or QB) is improving in the direction we expect them to go. We can look at the predictions for our teams regularly and figure out these numbers make a quick determination of are we become more predictable or productive or both.
Another note on this. Brees tops the table every time, Brady floats all over the place, and Eli Manning is almost always in the bottom three. Meanwhile, Brady has 4 Super Bowl rings, Eli has 2 and Brees has 1. Productivity and predictability ar not the only tools to success. They are keys to making successful plans, but there are other variables in the equation. A great defense and a good running game are also needed to win championships. Similarly, for our software teams, regardless of how predictable and productive they are, working on the right things and producing quality products are imperative in order to achieve success.
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